Tag Archives: CAP_SYS_NICE

Managing Privileges for Automated Raspberry Pi GPIO Testing

Many RPi libraries manipulate the GPIO pins by mapping various GPIO control memory blocks into the process address space. For GPIO input/output pins only, the Raspberry Pi OS kernel supports the /dev/gpiomem device which can be accessed from user space. For any other GPIO functions, such as setting up a PWM output, other memory blocks must be accessed through /dev/mem.

Typically, the base address of the desired control block is mapped into the process address space using the mmap command which takes a file descriptor for a /dev/mem device. User space processes cannot open the /dev/mem device, so a common workaround is to run the process as root using sudo. Additionally, GPIO ISR handling typically has much higher fidelity when the ISR dispatching thread runs at one of the ‘real-time’ thread schedules. This too requires elevated privileges.

For many use cases, like automated CI/CD running a test process under sudo is a less than optimal approach and certainly violates the ‘Principle of Least Privilege’. Typically, these kinds of impediments result in skipping automated testing -or- using workarounds like putting root passwords in response files.

Bluntly, there is no way to provide elevated privileges to a process without incurring some security risk and for clarity the approach described below is not strictly *secure* – I feel it is better and more constrained than most of the alternatives I have found. Certainly for hobbyists and individuals working on a benchtop, this is probably more than ‘good enough’.


The RPi maps the GPIO controls into physical memory at 0x3F000000 for BCM2835 (Models 2 &3) and 0x7E200000 for BCM2711 (Model 4) based RPis. To do this, a snippet of code like the following is used :


uint32_t peripheral_base = 0xFE000000;
uint32_t gpio_offset = 0x200000;
uint32_t gpio_block_size = 0xF4;

int dev_mem_fd = open("/dev/mem", O_RDWR | O_SYNC );
void*  gpios = mmap( nullptr, gpio_block_size, MAPPED_MEMORY_PROTECTION, MAPPED_MEMORY_FLAGS, dev_mem_fd, peripheral_base + gpio_offset );

The /dev/mem device cannot be opened if the process does not have the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability. There are a lot of other operations that are permitted for processes with that capability – but an ability to map physical memory into a virtual address space opens up a whole plethora of potential compromises.

Unfortunately, without this privilege any app needing to mount /dev/mem will have to be run with sudo – which is difficult to manage in an automated pipeline or even when running unit tests within an IDE, like using Catch2 in VSCode.


Linux permits capabilities to be assigned to files, so it is possible to provide the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability to specific files – for instance the unit test app created by a makefile. To do this, the following will suffice:

sudo setcap cap_sys_rawio tests

However, every time the tests file is rebuilt, the capabilities must be re-assigned – so we have not really made much progress, there is still a need for the user to intervene and provide a root password after every build.

To workaround this, the interactive user could grant herself the CAP_SETFCAP capability and then the snippet above can be run without requiring sudo. Giving a process CAP_SETFCAP capability is just one small step away from simply running as root, so we should strive for something better.

It is possible to permit a user or group to execute commands with sudo but without requiring a password by adding entries to a sudoers file. In fact, this capability can be fairly tightly constrained to very specific command patterns. These files can be placed under /etc/sudoers.d/ and will be picked up by the sudo processor. An example appears below :

steve ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:  /sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip /home/sef/dev/unit_tests/tests
steve ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip /home/sef/dev/unit_tests/tests*..*
steve ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip /home/sef/dev/unit_tests/tests*[ ]*

In the example, the first line permits user steve to run /sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip /home/sef/dev/unit_tests/tests without having to supply a password. The next two lines have an exclamation point to negate the operation and effectively eliminate any permutations of the prior line which could be used to grant the capability to a different, unintended file.

This combination puts us in a place where any process running under steve can provide the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability to only the /home/sef/dev/unit_tests/tests file without having to supply the root password. Clearly, if steve‘s account is compromised it would possible for someone to gain root – but the attacker would have to do a lot more work to get there if privileges had been provided indiscriminately or if the root password were placed in a response file.

Doing the above gets us close, but there is one more step needed. The /dev/mem file is owned by root and can only be accessed by root. Assigning capabilities granularly elevates privileges in the interactive process but that process is still not root. To resolve this final stumbling block, we can modify the ACL for /dev/mem to permit the interactive user to access it. An example of how to do this appears below :

sudo setfacl -m u:steve:rw /dev/mem

This command will not persist through reboots, but needs to be executed only once after a reboot. It would be possible to make this assignment persistent if desired.

Putting It All Together

The good news is that all of the above can be *mostly* automated as part of a CMake specification. Only two infrequent manual steps are required.

The following example uses a pair of template files and some CMake specifications to create a specialized sudoers file and a specialized shell script for setting the ACLs properly for /dev/mem. Peronally, I put the templates in the misc subdirectory of my unit tests folder and the CMakeLists.txt file is in the unit test folder itself. For the purposes of this example, the templates must simply be in the subdirectory misc of the directory holding the CMakeLists.txt file.

#   Allow setcap execute without a password only for the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability on
#       the tests file.  The negative patterns are intended to reduce the risk of anything 
#       other than just 'tests' being modified
#   Copy the generated file with the variables replaced into the /etc/sudoers.d directory

$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:  /sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests
$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests*..*
$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests*[ ]*

Adding the following to the CMakeLists.txt file will generate the final sudoers file. The CMake file command copies the generated file back into the source directory next to the template whilst also setting the file permissions appropriately. After the file is generated, it must be manually copied with the right file permissions to the /etc/sudoers.d/ directory, as that operation requires root privilege.

configure_file( ./misc/020_setcap_rawio_on_test_app.in ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/misc/020_setcap_rawio_on_test_app )
file( COPY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/misc/020_setcap_rawio_on_test_app

Finally, adding the following to the CMakeLists.txt file will assign the CAP_SYS_RAWIO capability to the tests file every time it is generated.

add_custom_command(TARGET tests POST_BUILD
                   COMMAND sudo setcap cap_sys_rawio+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests)

To make the ACL assignment easier, a similar process is used. First, a template file which will be processed by CMake is needed :

sudo setfacl -m u:$ENV{USER}:rw /dev/mem

Then, the right magic in CMakeLists.txt to process the template file :

configure_file( ./misc/set_devmem_acl.in ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/misc/set_devmem_acl.sh )
file( COPY ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/misc/set_devmem_acl.sh

This will create a shell script with the proper substitutions for the interactive user. This script needs to be executed once per session which seems a reasonable compromise. Alternatively, the sudoers file could be enriched to permit the command to be executed without a password and then even the process of permitting the interactive user access to /dev/mem can be used in automated scripts.


As mentioned in the introduction, ISRs servicing GPIO interrupts will typically need to run with realtime scheduling for reasonable performance. The main risk that concerns me is *missing interrupts* and beyond a couple kilohertz on an RPi4 it is easy to lose interrupts. Realtime scheduling in Linux can be applied at the thread level using pthread_setschedparam in something like the following:

if (realtime_scheduling_)
    struct sched_param thread_scheduling;

    thread_scheduling.sched_priority = 5;

    int result = pthread_setschedparam(pthread_self(), SCHED_FIFO, &thread_scheduling);

    if( result != 0 )
        SPDLOG_ERROR( "Unable to set ISR Thread scheduling policy - file may need cap_sys_nice capability.  Error: {}", result );

Using realtime scheduling is something of a risk as poorly designed code can starve the rest of the system, or perhaps more frequently a user looking for more responsivity can ‘nice’ their processes to the detriment of other processes. Therefore, the CAP_SYS_NICE capability is required to execute the above snippet.

The templates above can be enriched to include CAP_SYS_NICE, but there are a few details that *really matter*. The nastiest little complication is the difference in how the comma (i.e. ‘,’) is used by the setcap command and how the comma is interpreted in a sudoers file. In both cases it is a separator, to separate multiple capabilities for setcap and to separate different commands in the sudoers file. Therefore, within the setcap command in the sudoers file, the comma must be escaped with a backslash. The following is the template from above including the CAP_SYS_NICE capability.

#   Allow setcap execute without a password only for the CAP_SYS_RAWIO and CAP_SYS_NICE capabilities
#       on on the tests file.  The negative patterns are intended to reduce the risk of anything
#       other than just 'tests' being modified
#   Copy the generated file with the variables replaced into the /etc/sudoers.d directory

$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD:  /sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio\,cap_sys_nice+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests
$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio\,cap_sys_nice+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests*..*
$ENV{USER} ALL=(root) NOPASSWD: !/sbin/setcap cap_sys_rawio\,cap_sys_nice+eip ${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}/tests*[ ]*

As shown above, the comma separating capabilities is escaped with a backslash. Similarly, the setcap command used to assign capabilities to the tests file will have to be modified in the CMakeLists.txt specification.


Hopefully the content in this post will help not only manage permissions necessary for developing GPIO applications on the RPi but also provide some insight into how CMake can be used to generate various kinds of files from templates for specific use cases. I use these in my CMake files in VSCode while developing remotely on RPi 3s and 4s and it is certainly a lot more fluid a development experience than having to enter the root password all the time.